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This area contains information on the historic and present uses and producers of dimension stone in the province. It also provides a brief review of the province's dimension stone resources and potential.
Introduction to Dimension Stone
Historic Use of Dimension Stone
Dimension Stone Potential
Dimension Stone Producers
Dormant Producers
Listing of Tables, Figures & Photographs
References

Introduction to Dimension Stone
Summary
From the early 17th century until the outbreak of the First World War Newfoundland had a small, dimension stone (building stone) industry. By the early 19th century most of the major communities had resident stone masons. Fortifications, churches, government buildings, mercantile premises and railway bridge abutments were constructed using stone quarried from several sites around the island. Between 1865 and 1906 roofing slate was produced from several eastern Newfoundland deposits (Figure 1a and 1b) mainly for export to England; however, some slate was also used locally. By the early 20th century the local demand for stone had disappeared, local expertise died out and the use of stone was largely restricted to landscaping applications.

The modern dimension-stone industry is less than 25 years old. (see Figures 2a and 2b) In 2000, the gross value of shipped dimension stone was $4.7 million and for 2003 the estimated value is $3 million (Table 1). There are now three principle quarrying operations in the province: Finger Pond/Jumpers Brook area in central Newfoundland, Britannia Cove in eastern Newfoundland (Figure 2a), and Ten Mile Bay/Iggiak Bay in northern Labrador ( Figure 2b). A listing of Newfoundland and Labrador dimension stone sites is presented in Appendix 1 (Tables 4 - 11).

Table 1. Employment figures in person years and gross value of stone shipped for the Newfoundland and Labrador dimension stone industry.

Year Employment in Person Years
(Quarrying Operations)
Gross Value of Stone Shipped
1994 79 $4,909,000
1995 86 $4,485,000
1996 90 $4,845,000
1997 90 $5,422,000
1998 55 $3,953,000
1999 37 $3,057,000
2000 56 $4,704,000
2001 82 $7,089,000
2002 84 $5,843,000
2003 54 $4,085,000
2004e 78 $5,316,000
2005f 75 $6,108,000
2006f 69 $4,889,000

Note: Employment figures only include those directly employed in
quarrying and do not include fabricators or support staff.
(e = estimate,  f = forecast)

There are also several companies that operate quarries on the island of Newfoundland providing landscaping stone for local and export markets. 

The Province of Newfoundland and Labrador has an abundance of accessible stone. However, the challenge has been to locate stone that can be commercially quarried, and compete with stone from established international quarries. The province with its developing expertise and untested stone potential is well positioned to become a significant exporter of stone products. Continued exploration and development will see new stone varieties identified, which will bring unique characteristics to the marketplace.

What is Dimension Stone?

Dimension stone is any stone product which is quarried, shaped or simply selected for specific purposes, be it for construction, architectural or funerary stone.

Geologists classify rocks according to their mineral composition. However, the dimension stone industry classifies stone based on appearance and hardness as either "granite", "marble" or "slate". The granite of the dimension-stone industry along with truly granitic rock also includes gneiss, gabbro, anorthosite and even some sedimentary rocks. Uses for granite include architectural stone (construction, flooring, cladding, counter tops, curbing, etc.), raw block and monument stone for the funerary trade. Travertine, alabaster, calcareous stones and virginite are all classified as marble and are typically used for interior flooring, facing stone and monument stone. Slate, depending upon the quality, is used for roofing, flooring, architectural construction and landscaping.

In 1999, world stone production was estimated at 110 million tonnes and consumption was about 600 million square metres, worth more than $US20 billion. (Stone World Buyers Guide, 2001). China, Italy, Spain, India and Brazil accounted for 53.5 percent of the world quarrying output. In 2000, Canada produced about 0.5 million tonnes of dimension stone valued at $62.5 million (Table 2) (Vagt, 2002).

Table 2. Canadian production of dimension stone
1998-2000 (Vagt, 2002).


  1998 1999 2000
Commodity (000 t) ($C000) (000 t) ($C000) (000 t) ($C000)
Granite 163 27 264 193 32 804 238 40 481
Marble 14 887 28 2 283 31 2 913
Limestone 179 9 570 185 12 072 195 14 704
Shale/Slate 18 5 205 34 8 592 41 9 958
Sandstone 63 5 536 65 6 771 72 9 241

The Revival of the Dimension Stone Industry

Interest in the potential of Newfoundland and Labrador stone was rekindled in the early 1960s. In 1959, as part of a regional industrial mineral exploration program in northern Labrador, Brinex Limited examined several labradorite occurrences in the Nain area. The Ten Mile Bay area was identified as having the best potential and in 1960 a number of test blocks were extracted with the assistance of National Granite Limited (Brinex, 1961). Polished slabs were prepared by National Granite Limited and the Rock of Ages Corporation in Vermont and marketed as "Blue Granite". Physical and chemical testing of samples was completed by the Industrial Minerals Division of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, in Ottawa. Test results were positive but demand for the stone did not materialize and the project was shelved (Beaven, 1966).

Beginning in 1980, the Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Mines and Energy initiated a series of dimension-stone resource assessment projects. These projects are briefly outlined in Table 3. Quarry demonstration projects were also carried out at Ten Mile Bay, Lumsden and in the Mount Peyton area. In 1988, a building-stone demonstration project saw the establishment of a small wire saw and polishing plant at Corner Brook (Agricola Mineralia, 1988). Six potential dimension-stone sites were examined and stone was obtained from five of the sites. Two of these areas have become successful quarrying operations. The details of these projects are described further below.

Table 3. Summary of dimension-stone assessment projects carried
out by Mines and Energy.

Year Project Reference
1980 Assessment of dimension stone sites on the Island of Newfoundland. The Mount Peyton black gabbro identified as having the best potential. Watson, 1981
1982 Detailed surveys of five Mount Peyton gabbro sites. Borney Lake area identified as having the best potential. Tomlin, 1982a;1982b
1985 Marble occurrences of western Newfoundland examined for dimension-stone and mineral-filler potential. Howse, 1986
1986 Nain anorthosite examined for dimension-stone and gemstone potential. Meyer and Dean, 1987
1988 Davis Inlet area labradorite examined for potential dimension stone and gemstone. Myer and Montague, 1989
1991 Detailed assessment of Pye’s Ridge marble deposit, west of Deer Lake. Knight, 1992
1993 Assessment of the dimension-stone potential of the Topsails Granite. Kerr, 1994
1994 Assessment of the Silver Mountain marble deposit, Upper Humber River area. Howse, 1994
1994 Evaluation of granite in the Hodges Hill area, central Newfoundland. Kerr, 1995
1994 Report on the Fisher Hills bluestone, Pynn’s Brook area, south of Deer Lake. Knight, 1994
1995 Report on the dimension-stone potential of Hopedale and Nain migmatites. Meyer and Montague, 1995
1997 Report on dimension-stone potential for black granite in the Upper Humber area, limestone in the Hearts Delight area, Trinity Bay, and in the Cape St. Mary’s peninsula around Cuslett and St. Brides. Howse, 1997
2003 Newfoundland dimension-stone site studies, 2002 Dickson, 2002

Several operations started during the 1990s but did not meet with success. In 1991, a joint venture was formed between Newfoundland Slate Incorporated and the Miller-McAsphalt Group from Ontario to manufacture roofing slate. A roofing-slate plant was constructed at Burgoynes Cove to process slate from the nearby Britannia quarry. In 1995 slate production at the plant peaked at 4,700 tonnes; however, the operation closed in 1998. Also, during the early 1990s, North Atlantic Stone Incorporated, a joint venture between Classic Stone Incorporated and Kenny’s Granite Works Limited, opened an integrated dimension-stone plant in Buchans to process stone from several potential quarry sites throughout central Newfoundland including stone from the Mount Peyton area. The operation closed in 1998. In late 2001, Epoch Rock Incorporated opened a world-class gang-saw plant at Argentia, which processed imported block and exported polished slab for the counter-top markets. The operation closed in 2003.

 
Historic Use of Dimension Stone

Newfoundland, because of its strategic location and rich fishing grounds played an important role in the English-French hostilities of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Local dimension-stone usage traces its roots to this turbulent part of our history (Figures 1a, 1b, and 1c). Local stone, including sandstone from the St. John’s area and limestone from Chapel Cove, Conception Bay, was used by the English in the construction and maintenance of fortifications particularly in and adjacent to St. John’s and include Fort William (1618-1779), Fort Amherst (1777) and Fort Townshend (1779-1871). Placentia (locality 2, Figure 1a), located on the west side of the Avalon Peninsula was the French capital of Newfoundland from the early 16th century until the French colony was ceded to the English in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht. The French fortification, Fort Royal, on Castle Hill, Placentia was subsequently occupied by the English and maintained until 1811 when it fell into disrepair.

Early settlers incorporated loose stone, as they had in England and Ireland, in retaining walls, cellars and foundations. Rock cleared from fields and gardens formed rock walls, which defined land ownership. The rock walls of Grates Cove on the Avalon Peninsula have been declared a national historic site and reflect the early residents’ ties to Ireland. The history and a description of many historic buildings may be found at www.heritage.nf.ca/society/rhs/regstruct.html.

Government House, St John's In the early 1800s, an increase in population, the development of a wealthy merchant middle class and the establishment of local government brought about a demand for dimension stone. Prior to 1817 the colonial governors had resided seasonally in St. John’s; subsequent governors were required to occupy their positions year-round and efforts were made to have an official residence constructed. Governor Cochrane obtained permission to have a permanent stone residence built, and plans were drawn up modeled after the Admiralty House in Plymouth, England, with an estimated cost of £8,778, an exorbitant amount for that period. The plans called for a two-story structure with a basement and a surrounding moat. In 1827, 28 stone masons, 25 carpenters and 1 slater arrived from Greenock, Scotland, to begin construction on Government House. Thousands of tonnes of red sandstone were quarried from Signal Hill for use in constructing the walls. Quoins, jambs and chimney shafts were cut from English granite. After considerable modifications the building was finished in 1831 at a cost in excess of £36,000, a princely sum that resulted in a Court of Enquiry into its construction. Stone destined for the residence is thought to have made its way in to the Governor’s summer home. The stately Government House is currently used by the Lieutenant Governor and the grounds are open to the general public.

Court House, Harbour GraceIn the historic Conception Bay communities of Harbour Grace, Carbonear, Spaniards Bay and Brigus (Figure 1c) stone was used in government buildings, mercantile establishments and churches. Much of the stone was quarried from nearby Kellys Island (sandstone quarry 1, Figure 1b), but some stone arrived in Newfoundland as ballast on the various merchant vessels. The Harbour Grace Court House was constructed in 1835 using locally quarried sandstone. The prominent building is still used as a court house.

Many of the prominent merchants of the early 19th century had close ties with England where stone use was common. Upon arrival in Newfoundland some of these merchants had stone buildings constructed. In the 1830s, local Harbour Grace merchant and politician Thomas Ridley had two stone structures built. In 1834, the family residence, Ridley Hall, was built using local stone. The building was recently gutted by fire. Circa 1838, the Ridley Offices were constructed using stone from Kellys Island with brick trim and incorporating a slate roof. The walls of this building are two feet thick with the outer and inner stone walls in-filled with rubble. The stone used in the Ridley Offices is thought to have either been locally quarried or brought to Harbour Grace as ballast. Both of these buildings are registered heritage structures.

Ridley Hall Ridley Offices

Kellys Island sandstone was also possibly used in the construction of a prominent mercantile premises in Carbonear. Rorke’s Stone Jug was built in 1860 after fire had destroyed an earlier structure. The large, Georgian-style, three-story building has a pitched slate roof. The stone walls and slate roof gave the appearance of a jug hence the name. Rorke’s Stone Jug is a registered heritage building. William Donnelly built a New England-style stone house with a Welsh slate roof at Mint Cove, Spaniards Bay using stone quarried from Kellys Island.

In the first quarter of the 19th century Charles Cozens, a prominent Brigus landowner, had at least four stone structures built in that community of which only the Brigus Stone Barn remains. Built around 1825 as a residence, possibly from Kellys Island sandstone, the three-story building was later used as a barn. The building has been restored and is currently used as a museum, and is a registered heritage structure.

test The Conception Bay Museum, also known as the Harbour Grace Museum, is a prominent building in the town of Harbour Grace. A former customs building it is reported to have been constructed in 1870 replacing an earlier building. The museum foundations are constructed of rough-hewn, grey sandstone which somewhat similar to the local sandstone found around Harbour Grace. Overlying the sandstone foundation and possibly used as a facing stone are two strings (layers) of coarse-grained, yellow-green granite visible at street level. The quoins (corner blocks), window sills and lintels, doorway and doorstep, eaves and associated dentils (protruding blocks below the eaves), and the window surround on the upstairs middle-front window, are also made from same type of granite. The building is roofed with red and green slate which could possibly have been obtained from the Random Island area or North Wales. The granite used in the museum is readily identified as being Topsails Granite and indicates that date of construction of the outside of the building must be later than 1870. This rock was (and is) only available from the quarries located along the Newfoundland rail line in the Gaff Topsails area that were not opened until at least 1894.

Several prominent churches in St. John’s and Harbour Grace were also constructed using local stone. The Gothic-Revival-style St. Paul’s Anglican Church in Harbour Grace, which is believed to be the oldest stone church in the province, had its cornerstone laid in 1835. The source of the stone is not given, but sandstone from Kellys Island may have been used in its construction. The church is a registered heritage building.

Roman Catholic Basilica In the late 1830s, Bishop Fleming obtained permission to construct a new church to meet the increasing spiritual needs of the Roman Catholic population of St. John’s. In 1839, Bishop Fleming was offered sandstone that had been loosened by road construction on Signal Hill. He appealed to the congregation for assistance and three days later 6000 people of all denominations moved 1,200 tonnes of sandstone in a single day to the site of the new church. Buff-coloured sandstone for the church construction was also quarried from Kellys Island during the summer of 1839. Stone was also reported to have been quarried at Mundy Pond, Long Pond and the South Side Hills, in the St. John's area. In May, 1841 the cornerstone was laid for the Roman Catholic Basilica of St. John The Baptist. The Roman-basilica-style church took 14 years to complete and is one of the largest stone churches in North America, measuring 75 m long by 57 m wide with a facade 30 m wide. The church was faced with Galway limestone and the quoins, mouldings, cornices and window frames were originally fashioned from Dublin granite. The limestone has largely been replaced with grey sandstone quarried from the South Side Hills. In 1850, boulders of Holyrood Granite were shipped to St. John’s for shaping and incorporation into the Presentation Convent which was constructed adjacent to the Basilica. Both the Basilica and Presentation Convent are registered heritage buildings.

Church of England CathedralThe first cornerstone of the Church of England Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in St. John’s was laid in August, 1843. The church was to be constructed using limestone imported from Cork, Ireland. Crates containing the limestone were destroyed during the Great Fire of 1846. New plans were drawn up by English architect Sir George Gilbert Scott and called for a Victorian or English Gothic-style, latin cross-shaped structure. The corner stone was re-dedicated in September, 1847. The church was almost completely destroyed during the Great Fire of 1892. Reconstruction began soon afterwards and continued until 1972. Dressed, white, fine-grained sandstone was imported for incorporation into the church. Approximately 7,500 tonnes of coarser grey sandstone, quarried from the Southside Hills, was used in constructing the walls. The cathedral is a registered heritage building and the exterior of the church is under renovation.

Immaculate Conception in Harbour Grace In 1852, construction began on the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Harbour Grace using sandstone from Kellys Island. However, in 1889 fire completely destroyed the structure, and it was replaced with the current Gothic-style stone building that is a registered heritage building.

St Patrick's ChurchThe cornerstone of St. Patrick’s Church in St. John’s was laid in 1855. However, construction was not completed until 1881. Stone for the church was quarried from Cudahy’s quarry in the Southside Hills and the quoins appear to be grey Dublin granite. In 1873, the modified Gothic-style George Street Wesleyan Church was constructed in St. John’s. The church was built of rough-hewn stone quarried from the Southside Hills and hauled to the site by sealing crews. The exterior stone walls were covered by plaster. Constructed of red Accrington brick and Scottish Giffnock sandstone, the High Victorian Gothic Revival-style St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church in St. John’s was dedicated in 1896. Newfoundland red and black slate covers the church roof.

Holy Trinity, FerrylandA large stone church was also constructed in the now abandoned Roman Catholic community of St. Kyran’s, Placentia Bay. The Church of the Assumption, consecrated in 1859 and now a crumbling ruin, was built with locally quarried red granite, and imported sandstone used for the quoins, windows, door frames, etc. The church was reported to have measured about 79 feet long by 39 feet wide and had 20-feet-high walls which were 26 inches thick. The front of the church had three gothic arches, the central arch served as the entranceway, and on each side were six gothic windows (Long, 2002). In 1922, the church was destroyed by fire. Consecrated in 1863, the Church of the Holy Trinity, Ferryland, was built from stone quarried on nearby Stone Island and transported to the site by local fishermen. Some imported granite was used for quoins. The church was the last of five stone churches that Roman Catholic Bishop John Thomas Mullock ordered built that also included the long demolished stone church in Torbay.  

Cabot Tower, St John'sIn 1870, Great Britain recalled its Newfoundland garrisons and the local government assumed control of the former garrison buildings. A two-story, stone barracks, which was built in 1842-1843 near Georges Pond on Signal Hill from local and Nova Scotian sandstone, was converted into a quarantine hospital. St. Georges Hospital, as it came to be known, was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1892. In 1897, stone salvaged from the ruined structure was used to build Cabot Tower to mark the 400th anniversary of John Cabot’s discovery of Newfoundland. The tower was designed by local architect W.H. Greene and built by local stone mason Samuel Garrett at a cost of $7,000. The corner stone was laid by Archbishop Howley on June 22, 1897 and it opened three years later. The building replaced an earlier wooden structure used to signal the arrival of ships. It was near the site of Cabot Tower that Guglielmo Marconi received the first transatlantic wireless signal in 1901. Signal Hill and Cabot Tower are now a national historic site operated by Parks Canada.

Temperance Street HousesSamuel Garrett used stone left over from the construction of Cabot Tower and salvaged from the ruins of St. Georges Hospital to construct a series of stone houses, the Samuel Garrett Houses, on Temperance Street as wedding presents for his four daughters. The three-story, red sandstone building has a mansard-style slate roof and two foot-thick walls. To prevent rot and to provide insulation an airspace separates the inner wooden wall from the outer stonewall. The Samuel Garrett Houses are registered heritage buildings.

Rose Blanche LighthouseDuring the latter part of the nineteenth century, stone lighthouses were constructed at Rose Blanche on the southwest coast, on Belle Isle near the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula, and on Puffin Island near Greenspond on the northeast coast. Both the Belle Isle and Puffin Island lighthouses have long since been demolished. The Rose Blanche lighthouse, which was built prior to 1873, was designed by lighthouse engineers D. and T. Stevenson of Edinburgh, Scotland. It was built using stone quarried from the underlying Rose Blanche Granite. The lighthouse after being decommissioned in the 1940s fell into disrepair and by 1992 was in danger of total collapse. In 1988, the South West Coast Development Association assumed the lead role in restoring the structure. Restoration began in 1996 and was completed in 1999. Restoration included training local people in stone quarrying and stone masonry. Newfoundland slate from Britannia Cove was used for the roof. The building, which is the only remaining stone lighthouse on the eastern seaboard, is a registered heritage building and is open seasonally to the general public.

In 1889, Robert Gillespie Reid, a Scottish railway-bridge builder, was contracted by the Newfoundland government to complete the narrow gauge railway from Harbour Grace to the copper mining district at Halls Bay. With the decline of the copper mines the railway was rerouted to Port aux Basques, and was completed in 1898. To provide stone for trestle abutments Reid operated quarries at Shoal Arm, Benton and The Quarry located near the Gaff Topsails. In 1898, he was contracted to build a railway station at the west end of Water Street, St. John’s, and pave Water Street with granite cobbles. Stone for the station and the street was obtained from the quarry where about three dozen men laboured between 1898 and 1901 quarrying thousands of tonnes of granite and loading the large blocks on railway flatcars bound for St. John’s (Martin, 1983). Paving stone for Water Street was also quarried in 1898 from a small granite quarry at Petites on the southwest coast of Newfoundland. Stone from the Petites quarry and sandstone from Kellys Island were also used for facing stone on the impressive St. John’s Court House.

The Quarry The Railway Station, St. John’s Petites quarry, sw Newfoundland St. John’s Court House

Sir John Guy - CupidsIn 1910, a small red granite quarry was opened at Old Bay located to the east of Harbour Breton and about 1200 tonnes of stone was exported to Nova Scotia before operations ceased in 1914. Stone from Old Bay was incorporated into the memorial to Sir John Guy at Cupids (Martin, 1983).

The first recorded attempt at quarrying slate was in 1847 from a quarry at Great Cove, near Brigus, owned by Charles Fox Bennett (Martin, 1983). The slate was to have been quarried for local consumption; however, the Welsh slaters who worked the quarry had little success and the venture closed after two years.

Britannia Cove Slate QuarryThe Random Sound area ( Figure 1a) of Trinity Bay is in part underlain by units of purple, green and red slate. Exposed on the north side of Smith Sound are deposits of high-quality slate suitable for roofing material (see Figure 1b). In the 1850s, the first of the Trinity Bay slate quarries opened at Britannia Cove (also known as Burn Point or Britannia Cove) on the north shore of Smith Sound (Martin, 1983). The quarry, which supplied slate both to local and export markets, was operated by the Carberry Family until 1900. Although the slate was of high quality the Carberry quarry suffered from weak local markets. In 1860, John Currie, a Welsh slater, opened a quarry adjacent to the Britannia Cove quarry. This operation was operated seasonally by the Currie family until 1899 when the operation was purchased by A.J. Harvey. Harvey subsequently formed the Newfoundland Slate Company Limited which in 1900 purchased the nearby Britannia Cove quarry. The Newfoundland Slate Company renovated the operation and continued exporting slate until 1906 when through a combination of misfortunes the operation closed. Three smaller slate quarries operated sporadically on Random Island with the last quarry closing in 1910. It is reported that between 1865 and 1909, 153,702 squares of finished roofing slate were produced, the bulk of which was shipped to England (Murray and Howley, 1909).

Between 1901 and 1909 a number of unsuccessful attempts were made to develop slate quarries at Summerside, north of Corner Brook, on the west coast of Newfoundland, and Birchy Bay (Martin, 1983; Figure 1a). Mismanagement, misfortune, and low slate prices plagued both ventures and by 1909 quarrying had ceased without any slate having been shipped.

During the 19th and early 20th centuries several unsuccessful attempts were made to quarry marble from western Newfoundland (Martin, 1983). Small shipments of marble were sent to England from the Canada Bay area ( Figure 1a) in the mid 1860s and from the Humber River area, east of Corner Brook, in 1881. Between 1912 and 1915, an attempt was again made to quarry marble from the Canada Bay area. Infrastructure was put in to place and local people were trained. However, the onset of World War One forced the closure of the operation.

In the early 18th and 19th centuries stone masons and quarriers were brought from England for specific projects. By the early 19th century most of the larger communities had resident stone masons, but by the outbreak of the First World War, local quarrying activity had largely ceased. Expertise gradually died out as construction moved towards other sources of material. For most of the 20th century stone usage would largely be restricted to landscaping and retaining walls.

 
Dimension Stone Potential

The complex and varied bedrock geology of Newfoundland and Labrador (Figures 2a and 2b) represents an almost untested dimension-stone resource. It is a piece of Earth’s history, up to 3 billion year old, comprised of vestiges of ancient continents, mountain chains and long-destroyed oceans brought together by the forces of continental drift. Newfoundland offers tremendous potential for new resources of granite, marble, slate, and flagstone, while the immense landmass of Labrador offers unlimited potential for a wide variety of granitic rocks.

Extensive areas of Newfoundland are underlain by granitic rocks. In eastern Newfoundland, past exploration efforts have focused largely on an extensive area of granite lying to the north of the Burin Peninsula. In central Newfoundland, efforts have centred around the Mount Peyton, Hodges Hill and Topsails intrusive suites ( Figure 2a) and these areas have further exploration potential. In western Newfoundland, Precambrian granites and gneisses of the Long Range Mountains have seen only sporadic exploration efforts. New forest-access roads continually open areas for exploration, particularly in central and western Newfoundland. In Labrador, past exploration efforts have focused on the anorthosites south of Nain ( Figure 2b). Extensive coastal areas and regions recently opened by new highway construction in central and southeastern Labrador have yet to be evaluated. Gneisses and migmatites in the Hopedale area also offer some potential.

Extensive units of marble and limestone are present throughout western Newfoundland. A number of areas have seen advanced exploration activity, but large areas remain to be explored and a number of marble prospects require further evaluation. Small occurrences of marble are present throughout central and eastern Newfoundland. However, these are either too deformed or too small for dimension-stone purposes. In Labrador, the recent discovery of blue marble, opens a new area for exploration.

In eastern Newfoundland, good potential exists for further development of high-quality slate deposits along the eastern Newfoundland slate belt, which extends, sporadically from Keels southwards to Long Harbour ( Figure 1b). Potential for expansion of landscaping-stone quarries in eastern, central and western Newfoundland is good with steadily increasing local markets and the development of export markets for flagstone.

Dimension Stone Producers

The Province of Newfoundland and Labrador currently has three dimension stone quarrying and fabrication operations, and two operations quarrying landscaping stone for local and export markets. These operations are (see Figures 2a and 2b for map of locations):

Torngait Ujaganniavingit Corporation (TUC) operates anorthosite quarries at Ten Mile Bay and Iggiak Bay in the Nain area, northern Labrador, and processing plants at Ten Mile Bay and Hopedale. A third quarry is planned for Windy Hill near Rigolet.

Terra Nova Granite Memorials operates a black granite (gabbro) quarry and monument plant at Borney Lake/Jumper’s Brook in central Newfoundland.

Hurley Slateworks Limited operates a quarry and roofing slate plant at Britannia Cove in eastern Newfoundland.

Carew Services Limited operates a stone yard in Portugal Cove and landscaping stone quarries at Upper Island Cove (Conception Bay North), Twillick Brook (Bay d’Espoir) and Pynn’s Brook.

Fisher Hills Bluestone operates a landscaping stone quarry near Pynn’s Brook, western Newfoundland.

Ten Mile Bay Quarry

Location and Access. The Ten Mile Bay quarry and fabrication plant are located on the west side of Paul Island about 10 km southeast of Nain, northern Labrador ( Figure 3). The community of Nain is serviced by a regularly scheduled air service from Goose Bay and by passenger boats and freighters. The Ten Mile Bay quarry is a seasonal operation that is accessible by boat from late spring to late fall.

Polished slab of Ten Mile Bay anorthosite History of Development and Production. The 1986 Mines and Energy regional evaluation of the dimension-stone potential of the Nain anorthosite identified the Ten Mile Bay site as having the best potential for development. Test blocks were quarried, slabbed and polished and displayed at various geological and mining conferences (Meyer and Montague, 1994). The anorthosite (granite) at Ten Mile Bay is light grey, fine to medium grained, and has a uniform texture. About 12 to 20 percent of the labradorite crystals display the blue iridescence or chatoyance.

In 1987, slabs of the Ten Mile Bay anorthosite displayed at a trade show in Baie Comeau, Quebec, attracted the attention of a Quebec entrepreneur who in turn showed a sample to Italian dimension stone geologist, Attilio Bencaster. Bencaster visited the Ten Mile Bay site with representatives of the Labrador Inuit Development Corporation (LIDC) and Mines and Energy. A 10-tonne test block was extracted by the LIDC and the Department of Mines and Energy and shipped to Italy. Market response was positive and a marketing agreement was signed in 1992 between Torngait Ujaganniavingit Corporation (TUC), a subsidiary of the LIDC and Wibestone A.G. to buy all of the quarry’s production and to pay the LIDC 60 percent of the value of the anorthosite blocks, once the blocks were quarried, shaped and stockpiled (Meyer and Montague, 1994). The stone is marketed by Wibestone A.G. under the trade name "Blue Eyes" to fabricators in Europe and North American; raw block fetches a premium price per cubic metre.

During the winter and spring of 1992, the LIDC financed the purchase of quarry equipment with the support of the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA), Enterprise Newfoundland and Labrador, the Canadian Aboriginal Business Development Program and the Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Mines and Energy. A small quarry was opened in the summer of 1992 under the supervision of two experienced quarrymen from Grainmax Limited of Quebec. Production amounted to 16 blocks. During the winter of 1993, a local quarry crew was trained in quarrying techniques.

In 1994, the operation produced more than 500 cubic metres of trimmed block. Since then the operation has expanded considerably with up to 110 full-time seasonal employees and in excess of 1500 cubic metres of stone exported annually. Large blocks are quarried using a combination of drilling, diamond-wire sawing and occasionally low-grade detonating cord. Hydraulic drilling machines are used to cut out production size blocks from 200 tonne slabs. These production-size blocks are trimmed, squared and stockpiled for shipment to Italy. Stone processing plants have also been established at Ten Mile Bay and Hopedale to utilize undersize and B-grade block.

Ten Mile Bay quarry Ten Mile Bay quarry Ten Mile Bay strip plant

Iggiak Bay quarry In 2001, a quarry was opened at Iggiak Bay on Kikkertavok Island which is approximately 20 km south of Nain. The quarry accesses a brownish anorthosite, which exhibits large, multi-coloured labradorite crystals that is marketed under the trade name Arctic Rainbow.

Local Geology
The Ten Mile Bay area is underlain by anorthosite of the Middle Proterozoic Nain Plutonic Suite (Ryan, 1991, 1995) which underlies approximately 20,000 km2 of northern Labrador ( Figure 3). The Nain Plutonic Suite straddles the collisional contact between the Archean Nain Province and the Early Proterozoic Churchill Province and is one of several large anorthosite-granite massifs occurring north of the Grenville Front (Ryan, 1995). The suite is comprised of anorthositic, troctolitic, dioritic and granitic plutons which intruded between 1350 Ma (million years) and 1290 Ma (Ryan and Emslie, 1994). Most of the suite is internally undeformed. However, some of the suite shows evidence of deformation related to emplacement.

The following description of the local geology of the Ten Mile Bay area is taken from Meyer and Montague (1994).
"The anorthosite being quarried at Ten Mile Bay is a very high value stone, due to its unique and extremely attractive appearance.... Blue chatoyant labradorite crystals averaging a little over 1 cm in size are set in a soft medium grey background composed of labradorite crystals which don’t show blue colour because of their orientation on the cut and polished surface being viewed. When viewed from every possible angle, almost all of the labradorite crystals display chatoyancy. The resulting effect is one of "winking blue eyes" when walking past a large slab of this stone. The subangular crystals are not tightly interlocking, but nicely separated by 0.5 to 2.0 mm white margins consisting of fine grained (crushed ?) labradorite. The stone’s extremely consistent appearance is enhanced by a subtle banding defined by discontinuous pyroxene-biotite foliae (up to 5%), which give gentle " movement" to the stone’s appearance, and diminish the effect of any rare imperfections.

Within the quarry there is a strong rift direction (105
E/20EN), which is manifested by strong joint planes running parallel to the length of the bay and dipping towards it. These persistent joint planes are gently undulating, not perfectly parallel, and may be a result of stresses induced by glacial rebound. The joints are not controlled by, but may be influenced by, the discontinuous pyroxene-biotite foliation in the anorthosite, which also strike approximately east-west, and dip gently into the hill."

"The strong north-dipping joint planes ("rift") have vertical spacing of as little as 25 cm near surface, but quickly increase to over 1.75 m, especially along the eastern side of the quarry."
Borney Lake/Jumpers Brook

Location and Access. The Borney Lake Quarry # 5 is located approximately 10 km southeast of the community of Bishop’s Falls ( Figure 4a). In 2002, with reserves almost exhausted in Quarry # 5, the Finger Pond Quarry was opened approximately 5 km southwest of the plant. A well-maintained gravel road connects the quarry and plant with the Trans Canada Highway immediately east of Jumpers Brook. The quarry is a seasonal operation with stone quarried and stockpiled adjacent to the plant.

Abandoned Quarry5, Jumpers Brook Quarry5, Jumpers Brook

History of Production and Development. In 1982, the Department of Mines and Energy undertook an initial assessment of the Mount Peyton Intrusive Suite as a potential source of dimension stone. A trial quarry was established at Amy’s Lake in 1985 but the site was not viable. Stone from the Amy’s Lake site did generate interest and in 1990 the Mount Peyton Granite Company Limited opened a trial quarry 1 km west of the south end of Borney Lake. The greenish-black stone was very attractive but textural problems limited its use as a monument stone.

Abandoned Quarry4, Jumpers Brook In 1992, Mount Peyton Granite and Classic Stone Incorporated formed a partnership to develop quarries in the Borney Lake area and four quarry sites were opened. A total of seven potential quarry sites were identified ( Figure 4b) but initial efforts focused on Quarry # 4. During 1994-1995, North Atlantic Stone Incorporated was formed and an integrated dimension-stone fabrication plant was built in Buchans to process stone from Quarry # 4 and other nearby sites. The black gabbro was marketed under the trade name "Ebony Black". However, by 1995 quarrying problems and the unsuitability of the stone as a source of monument-grade stone in Quarry #4 required that a new source of black granite be identified. International Granite Corporation, completed a detailed geological mapping and diamond drill program which lead to the opening, in September 1995, of Quarry # 5 from which most of the subsequent production occurred. Stone from Quarry # 4 and subsequently Quarry # 5 supplied the North Atlantic Stone’s Buchans plant. This integrated stone plant in Buchans ceased operation in July, 1998.

In January, 1998 Cabot Granite Fabricators Inc., a subsidiary of Cabot Granite Fabricators Inc., Monument Plant, Jumpers Brook International Granite Corporation, opened a 20,000 ft2 monument stone-fabrication facility adjacent to Quarry # 5 at Jumpers Brook. Newfoundland Quarries Inc., a subsidiarity company was responsible for sales and marketing of production from the Jumpers Brook plant. Black granite (gabbro) was the primary stone used in the plant, but International Granite also provided the plant with red, pink and grey granites from sites near Seal Cove, Hodges Hill and Comfort Cove. Cabot Granite Fabricators Inc. provided finished stone for the provincial museum and archive complex "The Rooms"; located in St. John’s.

Continued exploration resulted in the opening of the Upper Christmas Lake quarry, but textural variations forced its closure. By 2001, much of the accessible stone in Quarry # 5 had been removed necessitating the identification of a new source of black gabbro. In 2002, approximately 5 km southwest of the Jumpers Brook plant, exploration identified a deposit of high-quality black gabbro near "Finger Pond" . Road access was established and a quarry developed. Diamond wire saws were used to detach large panels of black gabbro. Quarry bars and plugs and feathers were used to extract production-size blocks that were trucked to the Jumpers Brook plant for processing.

In 2005, the plant and quarries were acquired by Terra Nova Granite Monuments. The new company continues to focus on the production on monument stone, but work is also under way to diversify and create other product lines.

Quarry bar, Finger Pond Block extraction, Finger Pond Splitting a large block, Finger Pond Block of Finger Pond Gabbro

Local Geology. Both the Finger Pond and Quarry # 5 are located within the gabbroic phase of the extensive, Silurian Mount Peyton Intrusive Suite (Dickson, 1993; Figure 4a). The oval-shaped batholith underlies about 1400 km2 of north-central Newfoundland. The dominant rocks in the batholith are dark grey, massive, fine-grained, equigranular, pyroxene ± hornblende ± biotite gabbro and undeformed, massive, pink, medium-grained, equigranular, biotite granite.

In the Borney Lake area the gabbroic rocks are well exposed along a series of northeast-trending ridges and along the shoreline of Borney Lake (Tomlin, 1982a,b). Tomlin (1982a) noted that the gabbro is massive and exhibits two prominent joint directions which trend around 30° and 110°. The gabbro in the Borney Lake area is typically black and is composed of 50 % plagioclase, 30 to 40 % pyroxene, up to 15 % hornblende, 3 to 7 % quartz and 3 % opaques and minor biotite. On broken surfaces the stone is grey, but upon polishing the stone achieves a glossy black finish. Geological fieldwork by Sherry Dunsworth has identified three main subunits of gabbro in the Borney Lake area. These are 1) massive, homogeneous black gabbro (Ebony Black), 2) finely layered gabbro, and 3) variably textured gabbro. These subunits are related to an inclined, layered geometry that formed along the margins of the original gabbro magma chamber. Orthogonal joints are 1 to 3 m apart and formed as a result of cooling of the gabbro.

Polished slab Quarry5, known as Ebony Black View of layered gabbro, Quarry4 Variably textured gabbro, Upper Christmas Lake quarry

Britannia Cove/Nut Cove
Britannia Cove trimming Location and Access. The Hurley Slateworks Company Britannia Cove quarry and plant ( Figure 5) are located on the north side of Smiths Sound. A gravel road links the quarry with the nearby community of Burgoynes Cove which is approximately 34 km by road from Clarenville.

History of Production and Development. The Britannia Cove quarry was operated by the Carberry family from the 1850s until 1900 (Martin, 1983). An adjacent quarry was opened in 1860 by the Currie family who were experienced Welsh slaters. In 1899, A.J. Harvey purchased the Currie operation and incorporated the Newfoundland Slate Company Limited. The company acquired the Carberry quarry in 1900 and proceeded to modernize the operation. Seasonal production continued until 1906 when a combination of misfortune, fire and poor market conditions forced the closure of the quarry. Numerous buildings, particularly in the older portions of St. John’s have Britannia Cove slate roofs.

The inactive slate quarry was purchased in the mid-1980s and subsequently leased to Newfoundland Slate Inc. In 1991, a joint venture was formed between Newfoundland Slate Inc. and the Miller-McAsphalt Group from Ontario. Ardoisieres d’Angers, a major French slate producer became interested in the development and formed an arrangement to distribute slate to European markets. The French company provided technical assistance with quarry and plant design, training and equipment. A 36,000 ft2 world-class roofing slate plant was constructed near Burgoynes Cove and quarry development work proceeded. An access road was constructed from the plant to the quarry with the assistance the Mineral Industry Assistance Program, administered by the Department of Mines and Energy. In 1994, Newfoundland Slate severed its ties with Ardoisieres d’Angers after a weak European market prevented Ardoisieres d’Angers from fulfilling its contract agreements.

Newfoundland Slate developed its own markets and by 1995 slate production peaked at 4,700 tonnes and the operation employed more than 60 people. The company produced purple and green roofing slate, which was marketed under the trade name "Trinity Slate", flooring tiles and flagstone. The operation closed in1998.

In 2000, the locally owned Hurley Slateworks Company reactivated the quarry and built a new roofing-slate production facility adjacent to the quarry. At the quarry slate is extracted with saws and the rough block is tracked to the plant for processing. At the plant the slate is trimmed and split before being packaged for shipment.  The company has employed up to 45 people when in full production and distributed finished product in 12 countries.

View of Britannia Cove quarry Rotary saws at the Britannia Cove quarry Splitting slate with hydraulic splitters, Hurley Slateworks Finished roofing slate, Hurley Slateworks Company

Local Geology. The slates are part of the Bonavista Formation of the Lower Cambrian Adeyton Group ( Figure 5). The formation comprises red, green and purple slate, shale, thin limestone beds and local quartz-pebble conglomerate at the base. The Bonavista Formation is underlain by quartzite of the Random Formation. The Bonavista Formation has a discontinuous strike length of 50 km and is host to several other potential slate deposits at Keels and Random Island and the former Allison and Winter quarries on Random Island.

The Britannia Cove deposit, which sits in the hinge of a 1.5- to 2.0-km-long, tight, north-northeast trending, 5o- to 30o-south-southeast plunging syncline (Blackwood, 1993), has approximately 65 years of reserves The deposit is comprised of approximately 60 to 65 percent purple slate and 30 to 35 percent green slate (Blackwood, 1993). Red-purple and blue-green slate and minor grey slate are also present.

Flagstone Operations
A number of small quarries have been operated sporadically as sources of landscaping stone. Two companies currently quarrying landscaping stone are Fisher Hills Bluestone and Carew Services. In 1993, Fisher Hills Bluestone established a small quarry operation near Pynn’s Brook, south of the town of Deer Lake ( Figure 6) to provide flagstone for the local west coast market. Access was established and a small stone guillotine was purchased to break stone. The quarry accesses micaeous, blue-grey to green fine-grained sandstone of the Carboniferous Saltwater Cove Formation. The sandstone contains micaeous partings which make for excellent flagstone, suitable for walk ways, patios and retaining walls. Production from the quarry is seasonal.

Fisher Hills Bluestone quarry, Pynn’s Brook, western Newfoundland Fisher Hills Bluestone, Pynn’s Brook, Western Newfoundland

Carew Services Limited operates a large stone yard in Portugal Cove supplying stone for both local, mainly the northeastern Avalon area, and developing export markets. A stone guillotine and various trim saws enable the company to cut and shape stone for a variety of landscaping options. The company obtains stone from its own quarries located at Pynn’s Brook, Twillick Brook and Upper Island Cove and purchases stone from several sources. The Twillick Brook quarry is located on the west side of the Bay d’Espoir highway south of the Twillick Brook bridge ( Figure 7). The quarry exposes fine grained dark grey to black siltstone and shale of the Salmon River Dam Formation, Baie d’Espoir Group. Flagstone obtained from the quarry is marketed in Atlantic Canada and the northeastern U.S. as Vinland Bluestone. Numerous examples of both the Pynn’s Brook and Twillick Brook stone can be seen in walkways, patios, rock walls, and stairs throughout the city of St. John’s.

Twillick Brook bluestone quarry, Bay d’Espoir highway Carew Services Limited stone yard, Portugal Cove Twillick Brook and Pynn’s Brook stone, St. John’s.jpg (38451 bytes) Pynn’s Brook stone used in landscaping project, St. John’s

Dormant Producers

A number of quarries have been opened throughout the province mainly for the extraction of test blocks. Several of these quarries have seen limited production or production upon demand and a brief discussion of the larger trial quarries is presented below. Tables 4 - 11 gives a complete listing of the various quarry sites throughout the province; for site locations refer to Figure 2.

Hodges Hill Quarry
Location and Access. The Hodges Hill quarry is located west of Grand Falls-Windsor, approximately 9 km north of the Trans Canada Highway and about 4 km east of Cornfield Lake ( Figure 8). A good gravel road links the quarry site with the highway.

International Granite Corporation’s Hodges Hill quarry Blocks of Hodges Hill granite Polished Hodges Hill granite, known as Salmon Pink.jpg (41422 bytes)

History of Production and Development. Initial dimension stone prospecting of the area was undertaken by Mr. Bill Mercer of Badger and in 1993, Mr. Mercer sent test blocks to Nelson Monuments for polishing. Interest in the fine-grained red granite lead to an arrangement in 1994 with Classic Stone Incorporated. In 1994,  the Department of Mines and Energy completed a study of the dimension-stone potential of the Hodges Hill area in the area between Badger and Grand Falls-Windsor (Kerr, 1995; Figure 8). The study examined 12 previously defined sites and identified 3 other potential sites. Some development work and test block removal was undertaken in 1994, including quarrying of greenish orange, coarse-grained granite from Site 3.

In 1995, the property was obtained by International Granite Corporation. Geological mapping and trial quarrying were undertaken at a number of sites, including an attempt to quarry the red granite exposed at Site 11, approximately 1 km east of Cornfield Lake (Kerr, 1995). However, the granite was found to be too fractured for block extraction. In 2000, International Granite Corporation completed a geological assessment of an area of pink granite (Kerr’s Area A) about 3 km east of Site 11 ( Figure 9). The area was tested with 9 short diamond-drill holes and a production decision was made and a quarry was opened. Funding to upgrade the access road was provided under the Dimension-Stone Infrastructure Support Program. The quarry is located near the top of a rounded hill which rises about 250 m above the surrounding area. Several areas have been excavated and numerous blocks have been removed to the Jumper’s Brook plant. The stone, which is marketed under the trade name Salmon Pink, was used for architectural stone in "The Rooms" museum and archives project.

Local Geology The area north of the Trans Canada Highway between Grand Falls-Windsor and Badger is underlain by the extensive pink granite of the Silurian Hodges Hills Intrusive Suite. The granite is in part peralkaline and resembles the Topsails Intrusive Suite (Kerr, 1995). Two distinctive granites have been identified in the area and these are a grey, buff or red, coarse-grained, one-feldspar (alkali-feldspar) granite and a marginal phase comprised of pink to red, fine-grained, variably porphyritic, two-feldspar granite ( Figure 8).

Kerr (1995) reported that the intense orange and red colours observed in the granites were the product of post-magmatic alteration, and that the granites exhibiting these colours were typically more fractured and jointed than the green, buff or pink varieties. However, Kerr also stated that there were areas of orange and red granite exhibiting potential for quarry development and that these areas required further evaluation.

Seal Cove
Location and Access. The Seal Cove quarry is located on the Hermitage Peninsula, immediately west of the highway and approximately 5 km northeast of the town of Seal Cove ( Figure 9). Access to the site is excellent.

International Granite Corporation’s Seal Cove Quarry Pass Island Granite exposed at the Seal Cove quarry Pass Island2

History of Production and Development. The Mount Peyton Granite Company opened the initial quarry in 1990 with funding provided by ACOA. Results were favourable and blocks up to 5 m3 were quarried and transported to Bay d’Espoir for shipment overseas for evaluation. The program was scuttled when the blocks couldn’t be loaded for shipment. Classic Stone subsequently enlarged the quarry through various government-funded training programs. International Granite Corporation quarried a small amount of stone from the site and trucked the blocks to the Cabot Granite Fabricators Inc. facility near Jumpers Brook. The stone has been processed in to monuments, tiles and counter top. It was also used for floor tiles and wall panels in the Law Society building, Water Street, St. John's. Terra Nova Granite Memorials currently holds the rights to the quarry. The stone is marketed under the trade name Autumn Rose and is used mainly for funerary stone.

Local Geology. The granite exposed at the Seal Cove quarry is part of the Devonian Pass Island Granite which underlies the southwestern tip of the Hermitage Peninsula ( Figure 9). The granite is medium to coarse grained, and light pink to rose in colour (Tomlin and Watson, 1981). Jointing patterns, colour consistency and limited overburden make the granite conducive to quarrying. However, comparison with currently available stone indicates that the Seal Cove Granite would not be high priced.

The Summit (The Topsails)
Location and Access. The Summit quarry ( Figure 10) is located on the Topsails Plateau immediately west of the abandoned trans-island rail line and approximately 5 km north of Quarry Brook. Access to the area is via the rail bed.

International Granite Corporation’s Summit Quarry Large blocks of Topsails granite, Summit Quarry Polished slab of Topsails granite, known as Glacier Green

History of Production and Development. In 1992, Classic Stone Incorporated, with funding from the Department of Mines and Energy, examined a number of potential quarry sites within the Topsails Igneous Complex. Test blocks shipped to Italy received a favourable response and a marketing company Earthworks Limited was formed. In 1993, the Summit quarry, which is located midway between The Quarry and the Gaff Topsail, was opened capitalizing upon various government-sponsored training programs. The granite was reported to have been very amenable to quarrying and gang-saw-size blocks were possible. In excess of 200 cubic metres of stone were extracted and a number of blocks were processed at the former Buchans processing plant and plants in Quebec. Several large blocks of the granite remain at the quarry site. International Granite Corporation acquired the rights to the quarry and stockpiled some of the former production at the Jumpers Brook plant. The mineral rights to the quarry are now held by Terra Nova Granite Memorials and the stone is marketed under the trade name Glacier Green. It has been used for counter top and decorative work.

Local Geology The Summit Quarry is underlain by massive, medium-grained, peralkaline granite of the Silurian Topsails Intrusive Suite that underlies an extensive area of western, central Newfoundland ( Figure 10). In the area surrounding the Summit Quarry, the granite exhibits a wide variety of colours including yellow, green, orange, pink, red and mauve. Field studies carried out by Kerr (1994) revealed that colour variations exhibited by the granites were the result of both hydrothermal and surficial alteration processes. Pink, brown, orange and red colour variations are spatially associated with fracture systems that locally contain quartz- and hematite-filled veins. Mauve and patchy-yellow and yellow-green colours are attributed to oxidation due to weathering. Massive, pastel-green granite exposed in the quarry floor is interpreted to be the primary non-weathered and unaltered granite.

The granite exhibits a, prominent, subhorizontal joint system with a 2 m separation, dipping 5° to 10° to the east (Kerr, 1994). Northeast- and northwest-striking, orthogonal, high-angle joints exhibit spacings in excess of 2 to 3 m and locally greater than 5 m. There are three 2-m-high benches in the quarry and these expose the effects of surficial weathering. The uppermost bench exposes yellow granite; the middle bench contains yellow-green granite and the lowermost bench is underlain by green granite. Locally, small, rounded xenoliths of volcanic rock and hornfels are found in the granite.

References

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Bain, G.W.
1937: Marble deposits in northern Newfoundland. Bulletin # 11, Geological Survey of Newfoundland, 43 pages.

Blackwood, G.
1993: Geological report on the Britannia Cove Slate Quarry. Newfoundland Slate Incorporated, unpublished report, 106 pages. [2C/04(60)]

Beaven, A.P.
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Brewer, Kevin
2002: Pye’s Ridge North-a world class marble prospect. Newfoundland and Labrador Stone Symposium 2002, Grand Falls-Windsor, Program with Abstracts.

Brinex
1961: Report on operations for the year ending 31 March, 1961. British Newfoundland Exploration Limited, unpublished report, 16 pages. [Nfld(892)]

DeGrace, J.R.
1974: Limestone Resources of Newfoundland and Labrador. Newfoundland Mines and Energy, Mineral Development Division, Report 74-1, 117 pages.

Dickson. W.L.
1992: Ophiolites, sedimentary rocks, post-tectonic intrusions and mineralization in the Eastern Pond (NTS 2D/11W) map area, central Newfoundland. In Current Research. Newfoundland Department. of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Report 92-1, pages 97-118.

1993: Geology of the Mount Peyton map area (NTS 2D/14), central Newfoundland. In Current Research, Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Branch, Report 93-1, pages 209-220.

2003: Newfoundland Dimension-stone Site Studies, 2002. In Current Research. Newfoundland Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Report 03-01, pages 193-207.

Newfoundland and Labrador Dimension Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document
1998: Newfoundland and Labrador Dimension Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document. Unpublished report prepared for Dimension Stone Study Steering Committee by Resource Development Associates, Christopher L. Johnson, Mr. James Purdy, Mr. Jamie Meyer and Ms. Sherry Dunsworth August 31, 1998.

Erdmer, P.
1984: Summary of field work in the northern Lang Range Mountains, western Newfoundland. In Current Research, Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Mineral Development Division, Report 84-1, pages 103-112.

Hallett, D.A.
1976: A summary of marble deposits known in Newfoundland with preliminary comments on their accessibility and marketing. Newfoundland Department of Industrial Development. [NFLD (711)]

Hibbard J.
1983: Geology of the Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland. Newfoundland Mines and Energy, Mineral Development Division, Memoir #2, 279 pages.

Howse, A.F.
1986: Marble assessment - Insular Newfoundland. In Current Research. Newfoundland Mines and Energy, Geological Survey, Report 86-1, pages 21-26.

1994: Industrial potential of the Silver Mountain marble deposit, western Newfoundland. In Current Research. Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey, Report 94-1, pages 225-232.

1997: From refractories to dimension stone: Industrial minerals field activities in 1996. In Current Research. Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey, Report 97-1, pages 49-56.

Howse, C.K.
1936: Report on marble in Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Newfoundland, unpublished report, 4 pages. [NFLD (9152)]

King, A.F.
1988: Geology of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland (parts of 1K, 1L, 1M, 1N and 2C), Newfoundland Department of Mines, Mineral Development Division, Map 88-01.

Kerr, A.
1994: Magmatic, hydrothermal and surficial processes in the development of multi-coloured dimension stone granites of the Topsail Plateau area (NTS 12H/02). In Current Research. Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey, Report 94-1, pages 147-165.


1995: The Hodges Hill Granite between Grand Falls-Windsor and Badger (NTS 2D/13 and 2E/04): Geology, petrology and dimension stone potential. In Current Research. Newfoundland Mines and Energy, Geological Survey, Report 95-1. Pages 237-256.

Knight, I.
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1994: Fisher Hills bluestone: a Carboniferous flagstone/ledgestone deposit. In Current Research. Newfoundland Mines and Energy, Geological Survey, Report 94-1, pages 167-174.

1995: Preliminary 1:50,000 mapping of the Lower Paleozoic parautochonous sedimentary rocks of the Corner Brook area. Newfoundland Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Branch, Report 95-1, pages 257-265.

Long, Michael
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Martin, W.
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Meyer, J.R. and Dean, P.L.
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Myer, J.R. and Montague, H.E.
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Ryan, B.
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Ryan B. and Emslie, R.F.
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Table 4. Past Producers (Granite)
Quarry NTS Map Description Comments Reference
Petites 11O/10 Unit: Petites Granite

Age: Devonian

Name: brownish-pink porphyritic granite
Quarried from 5 tidewater sites in the late 1800s and used, in several St. John’s buildings, including the Court House, and as cobblestones. Light to dark brownish-pink, medium- to coarse-grained, potassium-feldspar porphyritic granite. Warm, soft colour and texture. Variable joint spacings may limit potential for large blocks. Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998
Rose Blanche 11O/10 Unit: Rose Blanche Granite

Age: Silurian

Name: light grey granite
Quarried circa 1870s for the Rose Blanche lighthouse. Light grey to dirty-grey, fine to medium grained, weakly foliated, muscovite-biotite granite. A blue-grey, finer-grained granite exposed at Otter Bay was sampled by Classic Stone. Polished slabs received positive comments at US trade shows. Variable joint spacing and shearing limit potential for large blocks. Stone also used to rebuild the lighthouse which reopened in 1999. Dimension Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998
The Quarry 12H/2 Unit: Topsails Intrusive Suite

Age: Silurian

Name: Nordic Green
Reid Newfoundland Company quarry 1898-1901, estimated production 5000 m cubic metres. In 1992, Stonework Inc. had several of the existing blocks processed into tiles. Kerr, 1994.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998
Quarry # 4 2D/14 Unit: Mount Peyton Intrusive Suite

Age: Silurian

Name: Ebony Black
North Atlantic Stone Incorporated quarried the stone from 1993 - 1995. The stone was processed at the Buchans Plant of Classic Stone. The quarry was abandoned due to the lack of suitable stone. Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998
Quarry # 5 2D/14 Unit: Mount Peyton Intrusive Suite

Age: Silurian

Name: Ebony Black
Quarry # 5 was developed near Borney Lake in 1995 by International Granite Inc. From 1995 to 1998 stone from this quarry was processed at the North Atlantic Stone plant in Buchans. After the closure of the Buchans plant in 1998 the stone was processed in the nearby Cabot Granite Fabricators monument plant. The quarry ceased production in 2002. Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998
Benton Granite 2D/16 Unit: Gander Lake Granite

Age: Devonian

Name: pink granite
First quarried at the turn of the century by the Reid Newfoundland Company for bridge abutments. Small amount of stone was used for construction in St. John’s. Light pink, coarse-grained to megacrystic granite. Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998
Shoal Harbour 2C/4 Unit: Clarenville Granite

Age: Precambrian

Name: reddish-brown porphyritic granite
Quarried at the turn of the century by the Reid Newfoundland Company for bridge abutments. In 1997, Dimension Stone Inc. extracted test blocks and these were shipped to Quebec buyers. Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998
Old Bay 1M/12 Unit: Harbour Breton Granite

Age: Devonian

Name: red granite
Small quarry operated by the Colonial Granite Company Ltd. 1910-1914. Approximately 1200 tonnes of stone exported to Nova Scotia. The Harbour Breton Granite is described as a pink, medium-to coarse-grained, alaskitic granite. Departmentof Mines and Energy Mineral Inventory Card 001M/12Stn001; Martin, 1983




Table 5. Dormant Quarries and Developed Prospects (Granite)

Quarry

NTS Map

Description

Comments

Reference

Hodges Hill

2E/4

 

Unit: Hodges Hill Granite Age: Silurian

Name: Salmon Pink

 

International Granite Corp. delineation drilling in 2000, road upgraded and quarry development. Blocks removed in  2001 for the Rooms museum project in St. John’s.

Mike Regular, pers. com., 2001

Summit Quarry

12H/2

Unit: Topsails Intrusive Suite

Age: Silurian

Name: Glacier Green

 

Classic Stone Inc. opened the quarry 1993. About 200 cubic metres of yellow and yellow-green granite quarried. Massive stone with good, widely spaced joints. Quarry is adjacent to Newfoundland Trailway.

Kerr, 1994

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Seal Cove

1M/12

Unit: Seal Cove Granite

Age: Devonian

Name: Autumn Rose

Mount Peyton Granite Co. opened a trial quarry in 1990 and it was later enlarged by Classic Stone. The granite is massive with consistent grain size and potential for blocks up to 30 tonnes. Tiles and slabs fabricated from this stone were reported to be of good quality.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Pass Island

1M/12

Unit: Pass Island Granite

Age: Devonian

Name: Autumn Red

Medium-grained, massive, pink to deep red granite exhibiting well-spaced jointing. In 1992, small test blocks were extracted by Classic Stone and shipped to Italy. In 1993, Classic Stone opened several trial quarries. This quartz-rich stone takes a high polish.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Comfort Cove

2E/7

Unit: Loon Bay Granite

Age: Silurian

Name: Atlantic Blue Mist

International Granite Corporation opened a series of trial quarries to obtain grey granite for monument stone. The granite is massive and many of the outcrops have widely spaced jointing, but abundant dark inclusions, fracturing and shearing make it difficult to obtain consistent quantities of good stone.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Upper Christmas Lake

2D/14

Unit: Mount Peyton Intrusive Suite

Age: Silurian

Name: Ebony Mist

International Granite opened a quarry to access high-quality black gabbro. The quarry is dormant due to compositional variations. Future development requires road upgrading.

Dimension- Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Middle Brook/BBK

2D/16

Unit: Middle Brook Granite

Age: Devonian

Name: blue quartz-bearing, pink, megacrystic biotite granite

The unit is a pink, feldspar-megacrystic granite containing distinctive blue quartz phenocrysts. A consortium comprised of Classic Stone, Dimension Stone Inc. and William Power opened the trial BBK quarry near Traverse Brook. The stone is attractive, massive and well jointed, but contains large xenoliths.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998



Table 6. Prospects (Granite)

Quarry

NTS Map

Description

Comments

Reference

John Hayes Harbour

14/C

Unit: Nain Plutonic Suite

Age: Mesoproterozoic

Name: anorthosite

In 1986, the Departmentof Mines and Energy collected small test blocks from ten sites. In 1994, The Labrador Inuit Development Corporation conducted trail quarrying of the most promising site. Test blocks were shipped to Italy but were found to contain pyroxene-labradorite pegmatitic pods which rusted. The anorthosite is massive and exhibits a well-spaced joint pattern. The stone is coarsely crystalline containing labradorite crystals up to 5 cm long. On polished surfaces the rock is medium to dark brown with up to 20 percent of the labradorite crystals displaying chatoyance.

Meyer and Dean, 1987;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Tabor Island

14C/5

Unit: Nain Plutonic Suite

Age: Mesoproterozoic

Name: labradorite

Site of the Grenfell Quarry which has been worked intermittently over the last 100 years, including an attempt by Brinex during the 1960s. Labrador Inuit Development Corporation removed test blocks from Tabor Island in 1997. The stone is coarsely crystalline. Further geological assessment is required.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Hopedale

13N/8

Unit: Nain Province

Age: Neoarchean

Name: migmatite

Polished slabs of the 3.1 billion year old, finely banded, swirly-textured, white, pink and black migmatite has generated interest from the group marketing the Ten Mile Bay anorthosite.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Windy Hill

unknown

Unit: unknown

Age: unknown

Name: granite

Potential quarry site.

Fred Hall pers. com. 2002

Indian Head

12B/10

Unit: Indian Head Anorthosite

Age: Proterozoic

Name: anorthosite

Quarried as a source of armour stone. The anorthosite varies from dark to light green and contains patches of mafic minerals and locally iridescent labradorite. In surface exposures the stone is strongly jointed and displays considerable colour and grain-size variations.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Hinds Lake

12A/15

Unit: Topsails Intrusive Suite Age: Silurian

Name: red and yellow granite

Classic Stone Inc. constructed a 1.5 km access road, stripping exposed fractured, medium-grained, red granite. Insufficient exploration work completed.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Western White Bay

12H/14

Unit: Long Range Inlier

Age: Proterozoic

Name: gneiss

In 1992, Appalachian Granite Company and Classic Stone removed frost-heaved boulders and had tiles cut by an Italian firm. In 1993 the tiles were rated as high-value at StonExpo. The presence of pyrite may limit its use to interior applications. Attempts to develop a quarry face failed. The stone contains orange, white and black bands and is best cut parallel to the banding.

Dimension Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Cat Arm

12I/2

Unit: Long Range Inlier

Age: Proterozoic

Name: migmatite

Tiles cut from a test block recovered from loose boulders were well received at StonExpo 1993. The rock is described as a swirly-banded orange-pink (with variable amounts of green), white and black banded migmatite. The rock appears to be massive and exhibits potential for large blocks.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Dunamagon

12H/6

Unit: Dunamagon Granite

Age: Silurian

Name: orange-pink granite

Slightly deformed, variably textured, medium- to coarse-grained granite. Moderately dipping sheets up to 2 m thick having vertical joint spacing up to several metres. In 1993, Reuben Stone shipped samples to Italy where they received a favourable response. Trial blocks were quarried by Classic Stone and processed into monument stone.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Brighton

2E/12

Unit: Brighton Gabbro

Age: Ordovician

Name: hornblendite

Coarse-grained hornblendite and lesser, younger, felsic intrusive rocks. The hornblendite is jet black and extremely coarse grained containing acicular crystals in excess of 10 cm in length. Variable calcite-quartz veining and difficulty in polishing are problematic. Potentially high-end, low-volume stone.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Lumsden

2F/5

Unit: Deadman’s Bay Granite

Age: Devonian

Name: pink, feldspar-megacrystic granite

Departmentof Mines and Energy, 1987 demonstration project produced about 130 cubic metres from blocks adjacent to the highway. Slabs used in the Alexander Murray Building, Memorial University. Detailed geological assessment required.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Crown Ridge

2D/16

Unit: Gander Lake Granite

Age: Devonian

Name: Crown Coral

International Granite obtained a number of test blocks from southwest of the Trans Canada Highway. The stone is an attractive pinkish-grey, quartz and biotite-rich, feldspar-megacrystic granite.

Dimension- Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Sock Pond/

Terrenceville

1M/16

Unit: Ackley Granite

Age: Devonian

Name: pink granite

First examined by Rueben Stone and in 1997 Dimension Stone Inc. opened a trial quarry and extracted test blocks. The quarry is located close to the granite contact and locally contains xenoliths and fine-grained granitic dykes and veins. The pink-orange, megacrystic granite has large-block potential (surface outcrops display widely spaced, up to 10 m orthogonal vertical jointing and 2- to 4-m-spaced horizontal jointing.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Pools Cove

1M/11, 1M/12

Unit Pools Cove Formation

Age: Devonian

Name: pink conglomerate

Thick-bedded, green-grey and pink, coarse-grained sandstone to boulder conglomerate is exposed in a series of barren ridges exposed the northeast of the highway. The stone is extremely hard and non-weathered. Joint orientations result in variably sized, non-square blocks. Polished slabs of the conglomerate have attracted some attention. A large polished column is on display at the Johnson GeoCentre located in St. John’s.

 

Goulding’s Spillway

2E/3

Unit: Mount Peyton Intrusive Suite

Age: Silurian

Name: black granite (gabbro)

Examined in 1992 by Rueben Stone Ltd. and the Departmentof Mines and Energy. The prospect is adjacent to the Rattling Lake reservoir and underlies a 500 m by 1000 m ridge 1 km south of the Trans Canada Highway. A 65-m-high quarry face with 2 benches had previously been developed to supply rock for a nearby dike. The gabbro is massive, but contains abundant sub-horizontal, white feldspar veins. The veining and the its proximity to the reservoir limited the quarries potential.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998



Table 7. Past Producers (Slate)

Quarry

NTS Map

Description

Comments

Reference

Curling

12A/13

Unit: Summerside Formation

Age: Late Hadrynian, Early Cambrian

Name: grey, green-purple slate

Trial quarry opened in 1902 and operated sporadically until 1909, no production shipped. The slate is reported to not be of high quality. Proximity to major roads would limit future production.

Martin, 1983;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Summerside

12A/13

Unit: Summerside Formation

Age: Late Hadrynian, Early Cambrian

Name: grey, green purple slate

Trial quarries opened in 1905 and by 1908 work had ceased. No production shipped. The slate is reported to be of low quality and would not support a large operation. The original workings appeared to have followed a narrow band of more suitable slate.

Martin, 1983;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Great Cove

1N/11

Unit: Adeyton Group

Age: Early Cambrian

Name: red and green slate

Small slate deposit operated circa 1847 by Charles Bennett. Operated sporadically for 2 years to supply slate for local market. No record of production.

Martin, 1983;

MODS 001N/11/Sla001*

Winter Quarry

2C/4

Unit: Bonavista Formation

Age: Early Cambrian

Name: slate

Located on the south side of Random Island near the town of Hickmans Harbour. Trial quarry operated circa 1900 and supplied a limited amount of roofing slate for the St. John’s market.

Martin, 1983

Grieve Quarry

2C/4

Unit: Bonavista Formation

Age: Early Cambrian

Name: slate

Located at Black Duck Cove on the south side of Random Sound. Trial quarry operated circa 1900, production unknown.

Martin, 1983

Allison or Bryant Quarry

2C/4

Unit: Bonavista Formation

Age: Early Cambrian

Name: slate

Located on the south side of Random Island near the town of Hickman’s Harbour. Trial quarry operated circa 1860 to 1900, supplied a limited amount of roofing slate for the St. John’s market. Last shipment 1910.

Martin, 1983

Black Duck Cove

2C/4

Unit: Bonavista Formation

Age: Early Cambrian

Name: slate

Located on the south side of North West Arm directly across from the community of Hickman’s Harbour. The quarry operated during the late nineteenth century.

Tuach, 1993



Table 8. Past Producers (Sandstone)

Signal Hill

1N/10

Unit: Signal Hill Group

Age: Hadrynian

Name: red sandstone

Sandstone quarried for various historic building projects in the St. John’s area including Government House and the Roman Catholic Basilica.

Martin, 1983

Southside Hills

1N/10

Unit: Signal Hill Group

Age: Hadrynian

Name: red and green sandstone

Sandstone quarried from a number of sites for various historic building projects in the St. John’s area

Martin, 1983

Kellys Island

1N/11

Unit: Kellys Island Formation, Bell Island Group

Age: Cambrian

Name: buff sandstone

Sandstone quarried from a number of sites for various historic building projects in the St. John’s and Conception Bay area.

Martin, 1983

Stone Island

1N/2

Unit: Signal Hill Group ?

Age: Hadrynian

Name: sandstone

Sandstone quarried for construction of Roman Catholic Church, Ferryland.

 

Grand Falls

2D/13

Unit: Wigwam Formation

Age: Silurian

Name: red sandstone

Red sandstone quarried near the site of the Abitibi Consolidated paper mill for rock walls, stairs and patios.

 


Table 9. Dormant Quarries and Developed Prospects (Slate)

Keels

2C/11

Unit: Bonavista Formation

Age: Lower Cambrian

Name: purple, green and lesser red and grey slate

The deposit is located on a small peninsula with an elevation of 20 to 30 m above sea level. Purple and green slate with lesser red and grey slate occur within the hinge area of a syncline. The beds are reported to contain more calcareous inclusions/nodules and exhibit more rapid colour changes than the Britannia Cove deposit. However, the beds are less deformed and the deposits is reported to contain substantial reserves of high-quality slate. In 1993, Power Slate Inc., through a training program, removed test blocks from which slate block was cut. Some of this material was sold to Newfoundland Slate Inc.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Random Island

2C/4

Unit: Bonavista Formation

Age: Lower Cambrian

Name: purple, green and lesser red and grey slate

The Random Island slate prospect underlies a 6-km-long, north-trending belt which bisects Random Island. The belt hosts the former Winter, Allison and Grieve quarries (described above), the Jones quarry and Strong Tickle West and East pits. The Britannia Slate Company Ltd. carried out geological mapping and limited diamond-drill-core surveys of the property. The slate lies within a large syncline, the southern 2.5 km of which has 250 to 300 m wide vertical limbs containing high quality, purple, green and red slate. To the north, the eastern limb of the syncline exhibits high-quality slate over widths of 100 to 200 m. Elevations at both ends of the belt exceed 125 m. The Britannia Slate Company Ltd. estimated reserves at 350 million tonnes.

Tuach, 1993;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Long Harbour Slate

1N/5

Unit: Bonavista Formation

Age: Lower Cambrian

Name: grey-green slate

The Long Harbour slate belt occurs within a 12-km-long, northeast-trending syncline located to the south of the Trans Canada Highway and about 14 km northeast of Placentia. In 1993-1994, Newfoundland Slate Inc. evaluated the property through diamond drilling and stripping. Results from the study indicated the presence of good quality slate, but insufficient removal of weathered slate prevented the company from obtaining test blocks.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Paradise Sound

1M/7

Unit: Bonavista Formation

Age: Lower Cambrian

Name: red and green slate

The prospect is dominated by maroon-red slate with lesser light green, maroon and mottled green varieties. The slate displays a vertical to subvertical cleavage. Attempts at quarrying were undertaken circa 1900 by the Currie family.

MODS 001M/07/Sla001*



Table 10. Marble (Developed Prospects)

Quarry

NTS Map

Description

Comments

Reference

Pye’s Ridge

12H/4

Unit: Table Head and St. George Groups

Age: Ordovician

Name: marble

Mottled, blue-grey, grey and white-banded, veined, salmon pink, pink with white and green banding, and grey with black stylolitic marble is exposed along a 2.5 km by 5.0 km ridge 12 km west of Deer Lake. Staked by Mr. Len Pye the area was evaluated, with funding from Enterprise Newfoundland and Labrador, and by Technostone S.P.A. of Carrara, Italy. Two areas of off-white marble and one area of grey marble were identified for extraction. In 1992, Tiara Marble optioned the property. Geofield in conjunction with the Quarries Group of Italy were contracted to complete a second phase of diamond drilling and to assess the potential for additional marble colours. In late 1992 and 1993, Geomapping Associates Ltd. of Vermont were contracted to review previous work and complete a more detailed feasibility study which included overburden stripping, test block removal and drilling. Results indicated that small scale colour changes and close spaced fractures were common. An area of dark grey, stylolitic marble was identified as a potential quarry site and in 1993 a proposed development plan was registered with government. However, a lack of capital prevented the project from advancing to production.

In 2002, Atlantic Stone carried out marble exploration and diamond drilling in the Pye’s Ridge north area.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998;

Brewer, 2002

Dormston Quarry

12A/13

Unit: Table Head Group

Age: Ordovician

Name: dark grey to black marble

From 1943 to 1965, Bowater’s Newfoundland Pulp and Paper Mills Ltd. quarried about 15,000 to 20,000 tonnes of limestone annually for consumption in their sulphite plant. Material from the quarry was also used for road and concrete aggregate. The marble was also used as ashlar for local housing and the Western Memorial Hospital and in the reconstruction of the Corner Brook C.N.R. facilities in the 1960s. The abandoned quarry is approximately 150 m wide and the face (a bedding plane) is about 100 m high.

The dark grey to black marble, which is commonly cut by abundant, thin, anastomosing, white calcite veinlets, takes an excellent polish. The marble is reported to be similar to the Spanish black marble Negro Marquina. The marble beds strike 010E and dip 60Ewest and are up to 2.5 m thick. Samples collected for a Departmentof Mines and Energy demonstration project were prepared by Nelson Monuments in Sussex, N.B.

Past quarrying and its proximity to the City of Corner Brook and the Trans Canada Highway may limit the potential of this site. However, further geological investigation of this unit is warranted.

DeGrace, 1974;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998



Table 11. Marble (Prospects)

Quarry

NTS Map

Description

Comments

Reference

12 Mile Dam Road

12A/13

Unit: Port au Port Group

Age: Cambrian

Name: marble breccia

Located about 2 km east of the Trans Canada Highway on the Twelve Mile Dam Road, the site was originally identified by the Departmentof Mines and Energy. In 1995, the Iapetus Marble Co., with funding from the Departmentof Mines and Energy, used a diamond-wire saw to extract approximately 45 tonnes of pink marble breccia from a ridge. Some of the material was processed into 35-cm-thick slabs at the North Atlantic Stone plant in Buchans. Further exploration work, including delineation drilling, is recommended.

Knight, 1995;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Lady Slipper Pond

12A/13

Unit: St. George Group

Age: Ordovician

Name: marble

In 1994 the Lady Slipper Pond area were mapped by the Departmentof Mines and Energy. Funding under a Federal/Provincial government dimension-stone demonstration project in 1994 provided funding to remove large boulders and blocks of subcrop from the Lady Slipper Pond site, which is located 4.2 km east of the Trans Canada Highway. The material was shipped to Sussex, New Brunswick for cutting and to Dartmouth, Nova Scotia for polishing and fabrication into tables. The finished tables were installed in the Marble Mountain ski lodge.

A number of sites in the Lady Slipper Pond area were examined by Tim Gushue Exploration.

White, pink to red banded, stylolitic, cream and grey marble occur at the Lady Slipper Pond prospect. The unit is about 10 m thick and dips 30E to the southeast. However the marble exhibits rapid colour variation. Detailed assessment work is required to required to determine continuity of width and colour.

Knight, 1995;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Pinchgut Lake

12A/12

Unit:

Age: Ordovician

Name: marble

Several marble prospects have been identified in this area which is accessible via logging roads from the Trans Canada Highway. Exploration in the area has been conducted by Tim Gushue Exploration and Meyer-Dunsworth Enterprises. Boulders from this area were used in the Federal/Provincial government dimension stone demonstration project as a source of material for table tops and counter tops for the Marble Mountain ski lodge.

Marble identified in the area include: 1) grey- and white-mottled, calcitic marble with pale orange stylolites and veining, 2) interbanded, purple to mauve and white to cream, dolomitic marble with quartz veining, 3) pink, banded, dolomitic marble and 4) white calcitic marble. Further detailed assessment work is required to establish thicknesses and continuity of colours. White Bay Federal/Provincial government dimension-stone demonstration project.

Knight, 1996;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

White Bay

12H/9 12H/10

Unit: Fleur de Lys Supergroup

Age: Neoproterozic

Name: marble

Several generally small marble occurrence outcrop along the western coastline of the Baie Verte Peninsula including (1) marble breccia at Bear Cove, (2) fine-grained, fractured, white to blue-grey marble at Purbeck’s Cove, (3) greyish white marble at Clay Cove, (4) fine-grained, blue-white marble at The Beaches, and (4) and coarse, white to pink marble at Big Chausse Brook.

Bain, 1937;

Howse, 1986;

Hibbard, 1983;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Sops Arm/ Jacksons Arm

12H/15

Unit: Coney Head Group

Age: Cambro-Ordovician

Name: marble

Belt of carbonate rocks extending about 40 km south from Great Coney Arm on the west side of White Bay. North of Jackson’s Arm the marbles are very-fine-grained, crystalline, blue to white, partially recrystallized, calcitic and dolomitic marble. Marble colour is variable with grey with white calcite veining and blue and grey with reddish veining. Marble breccia is locally developed. Southwards the marbles become more recrystallized and deformed. Near Main River, fine-grained, white to orange-cream and medium to dark grey, locally banded and brecciated marble is exposed in a gravel pit. Ubiquitous orange to red veining is present. South of Main River, near Giles Brook, the marble is reported to be lighter coloured, more massive and more competent.

Meyer-Dunsworth Enterprises reported that samples collected from the Main River site cut and polish well. Further assessment work is required for both the Main River and Giles Brook sites.

Bain, 1937;

Howse, 1986;

Hibbard, 1983;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Silver Mountain

12H/11

Unit: Long Range Inlier

Age: Precambrian

Name: marble

The Silver Mountain prospect occurs adjacent to the Upper Humber River about 10 km west of the Sop’s Arm highway. A forest access road leads directly to the site. The prospect is part of a lens-shaped unit of coarse-crystalline marble with a strike length of about 5 km and a width of approximately 400 m. Banding in the marble trends 160Eand dips steeply to the east.

The unit is reported to have good potential for dimension stone due to its massive character, competency, colour and polishing characteristics. The coarse grain size and locally developed graphite and arsenopyrite may present problems. A conservative estimate of reserves indicated 175,000 tonnes of white marble in an area 500 m long by 10 m wide by 10 m deep. Further detailed assessment including, mapping, drilling and test block extraction has been recommended. Some work has been completed by the Appalachian Granite Company.

Erdmer, 1984;

Reusch, 1985;

Howse, 1994;

Meyer, 1995;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Canada Bay area

12I/1, 12I/16

Unit: St. George Group

Age: Ordovician

Name: marble

Marble underlies a 40 km belt which extends from south of Canada Bay northwards to Croque. The Canada Harbour prospect, lies on the south side of Canada Bay about 6 km from the town of Englee. From 1912 to 1915, the Colonial Trading Company unsuccessfully attempted to quarry the marble for ornamental stone. The dimension stone potential of this site was examined in the 1930s by the Geological Survey of Newfoundland and more recently by the Dept of Mines and Energy. The marble is fine grained, diffuse cream and white in colour and exhibits wispy, light beige, pale brown and pale green-brown folded streaks. Strong cleavage and fracturing limit the potential of this site.

A finely textured, dark blue marble, which when polished has a velvet-like texture, occurs at Burnt Point, Canada Bay. The marble is reported to have the potential for large blocks. However, structural complexities and discontinuity of colour, rarely exceeding thicknesses greater than 45 cm, would be a challenge to quarrying.

Howse, 1936;

Howse, 1986;

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998;

Dickson, 2003;

Hallett, 1976;

Port aux Port Peninsula

12B/10 12B/11

Unit: Table Head Group, St. George Group

Age: Ordovician

Name: limestone

Very limited assessment work completed, but potential for limestone block. Slabs prepared by the Departmentof Mines and Energy compared favourably with French limestone. Further assessment work and marketing is warranted.

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998

Flat Water Pond

12H/16

Unit: Advocate Complex

Age: Cambro-Ordovician

Name: virginite / mariposite

Virginite, a bright emerald-green rock containing ubiquitous white calcite and quartz veins, occurs as a discontinuous belt which is best exposed near Flat Water Pond, along the Baie Verte highway, approximately 45 km north of the Trans Canada Highway. Originally a serpentinite, the rock has been altered to an assemblage of carbonate-quartz-fuchsite and trace sulphides.

Material collected from this site has been used extensively by small-scale rock shops throughout the province. The virginite typically occurs as pods surrounded by talc-carbonate schist. Further assessment work is required to delineate the potential of this stone.

Hibbard, 1983

Dimension-Stone Industry: Strategic Planning Document, 1998


Listing of Tables, Figures & Photographs

List of Tables
Table 1 Employment figures and gross value of stone shipment for the dimension stone industry.
Table 2 Canadian production of dimension stone 1998-2000 (after Vagt, 2002).
Table 3 Summary of dimension stone assessment projects.
Table 4 Past producers (Granite).
Table 5 Dormant quarries and developed prospects (Granite).
Table 6 Prospects (Granite).
Table 7 Past producers (Slate).
Table 8 Past producers (Sandstone).
Table 9 Dormant quarries and developed prospects (Slate).
Table 10 Marble (Developed Prospects).
Table 11 Marble (Prospects).

List of Figures
Figure 1a Distribution of old quarry sites and historical stone structures.
Figure 1b Inset map of the Avalon Peninsula.
Figure 1c Listing of historic stone structures (Keyed to 1a,b).
Figure 2a Current dimension-stone sites in Newfoundland.
Figure 2b Current dimension-stone sites in Labrador.
Figure 3 Ten Mile Bay and Iggiak Bay quarries and the Nain Intrusive suite (adapted from Geological Survey Mineral Commodities Series No. 2).
Figure 4a The Mount Peyton area, and the location of the International Granite Corporation quarries and the Cabot Granite Fabricators Inc. plant (modified after Dickson, 1993).
Figure 4b Quarry sites and prospects in the Borney Lake/Jumpers Brook area.
Figure 5 Geology and location of the Britannia Cove slate quarry (modified after King, 1988).
Figure 6 Geology and locations of the Fisher Hills and the Pynn’s Brook quarries (modified after Knight, 1994).
Figure 7 Geology and location of the Twillick Brook quarry site.
Figure 8 Geology and location of the Hodges Hill quarry and other prospects (modified after Kerr, 1995).
Figure 9 Geology of the Pass Island area and the location of the Seal Cove and Pass Island quarries.
Figure 10 Geology of the Topsails and location of the Summit Quarry (modified after Kerr, 1994).

List of Photographs
Government House, St. John’s, Newfoundland.
Court House, Harbour Grace, Newfoundland.
Ridley Hall, Harbour Grace.
Ridley Offices, Harbour Grace.
Roman Catholic Basilica of St. John the Baptist, St. John’s, Newfoundland.
Church of England Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, St. John’s, Newfoundland.
Immaculate Conception Church, Harbour Grace
St. Patrick's Church, St. John's, Newfoundland.
Holy Trinity Church, Ferryland.
Cabot Tower, St. John’s, Newfoundland.
The Samuel Garrett or Temperance Street Houses.
The restored Rose Blanche Lighthouse.
Cut granite blocks stockpiled at The Quarry (1898-1901), Topsails Plateau.
The Railway Station, St. John’s, Newfoundland.
Petites quarry, southwestern Newfoundland.
St. John’s Court House, built 1897.
Sir John Guy Monument at Cupids.
Britannia Cove - Slate Quarry.
Polished slab of Ten Mile Bay anorthosite showing the blue iridescence or chatoyancy which gives the stone its trade name “Blue Eyes”.
Ten Mile Bay Quarry 2 (photo courtesy of the Torngait Ujaganniavingit Corporation).
Ten Mile Bay Quarry 3 (photo courtesy of the Torngait Ujaganniavingit Corporation).
Ten Mile Bay strip plant (photo courtesy of the Torngait Ujaganniavingit Corporation).
Iggiak Bay quarry (photo courtesy of the Torngait Ujaganniavingit Corporation).
The abandoned Quarry #5, Jumpers Brook, central Newfoundland.
Abandoned Quarry #5, Jumpers Brook, central Newfoundland.
The abandoned Quarry #4, Jumpers Brook, central Newfoundland.
Cabot Granite Fabricators Inc. 20,000 sq ft. monument plant, Jumpers Brook.
Quarry bar setup, Finger Pond quarry, Jumpers Brook, central Newfoundland.
Block extraction, Finger Pond quarry, Jumpers Brook, central Newfoundland.
Splitting a large block into production blocks using plug and feathers, Finger Pond quarry, Jumpers Brook.
Block from the Finger Pond quarry, Jumpers Brook, central Newfoundland.
Polished slab of the Mount Peyton gabbro which is marketed under the trade name “Ebony Black”.
View of layered gabbro, Quarry # 4, Jumpers Brook.
Variably textured gabbro, Upper Christmas Lake quarry.
Britannia Cove - Trimming Slate.
The Britannia Cove quarry. The roofing tile plant is located on the far side of the quarry.
Rotary saws used to extract slate from the Britannia Cove quarry.
Splitting slate with hydraulic splitters, Hurley Slateworks Company.
Finished roofing slate crated for shipment, Hurley Slateworks Company.
Fisher Hills Bluestone quarry, Pynn’s Brook.
Landscaping stone, Fisher Hills Bluestone, Pynn’s Brook.
Twillick Brook bluestone quarry, Bay d’Espoir highway.
Carew Services Limited stone yard, Portugal Cove.
Twillick Brook and Pynn’s Brook stone used in landscaping project, St. John's.
Pynn’s Brook stone used in landscaping project, St. John’s.
International Granite Corporation’s Hodges Hill quarry, central Newfoundland.
Blocks of Hodges Hill granite, central Newfoundland.
Hodges Hill granite marketed under the trade name “Salmon Pink”.
International Granite Corporation’s Seal Cove Quarry, southern Newfoundland.
Pink Pass Island Granite exposed at the Seal Cove quarry.
Pink granite from the Seal Cove quarry, marketed under the trade name “Autumn Rose”.
International Granite Corporation’s Summit Quarry, central Newfoundland.
Blocks of Topsails granite, Summit Quarry.
Topsails granite marketed under the trade name “Glacier Green”.

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